Neurogenic Thoracic Outlet Syndrome (NTOS) is a rare, but controversial syndrome in relation to its diagnosis, treatment modality, and approaches in case of surgical treatment. In the English literature, there are sparse studies dealing with these aspects.
We conducted a PubMed 2000-2017 literature review and found a total of 3953 cases reported with NTOS. The clinical characteristics, etiology, electrophysiological and radiological work-up and treatment options were reviewed and reported.
It seems that, as far as surgical indication criteria are concerned, there is a consensus for NTOS in its motor deficit stage and its techniques are generally well established.
This review showed that differential diagnosis, radiological, and electrophysiological criteria for correct diagnosis of NTOS are not controversial. However, surgical indications and types of approaches and techniques reflect the surgeon’s affiliation with specialties dealing with NTOS (vascular, plastic, hand, orthopedic or neurosurgeons), and the surgeon’s experience with this specific and rare syndrome.
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