Introduction: Trauma can be defined as a ‘blunt or penetrating external force exerted on the body resulting in injury’. Traumatic injury is a leading cause of death globally among persons under the age of 45 years. Over 5 million deaths occur each year as a result of injuries, representing 9% of the world's mortality. Non-fatal injuries are among the leading global cause of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and long-term morbidity, accounting for a large part of health systems workload. Although road injuries, falls and self-harm are the top three causes of injury burden globally, their relative importance may differ according to the region. The initial assessment and management of traumatized patients should take place in a specialized area of an emergency department or a specialized trauma center. The time of injury is the essence of survival for life-threatening trauma.
Appropriate initial care at the scene affects the morbidity and mortality of the traumatized patient. Prolonged transport time or inadequate hospital care increases the demand for early restoration of rapid tissue perfusion before the physiological changes of the injured patient reach the hospital. On the other hand, the lack of medical emergencies in rural areas and the lack of knowledge of management protocols by trauma management personnel increase morbidity and mortality in this group of patients. This presentation addresses the management of traumatized patients after these patients reach an emergency department at a regional/municipal hospital or a traumatic center.
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