Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis is a benign, uncommon type of chronic cholecystitis manifested by focal or diffuse severe inflammatory process of the gallbladder (GB). It is inflammatory disease of the gallbladder characterized by the infiltrations of plasma cells, lipid-laden histiocytes, and the fibroblasts proliferation in GB wall. Gallstones are present in all patients, and like most symptomatic gallbladder diseases, there is a female predominance. It is an active inflammatory process which could leads to significant morbidity. The term Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis was initially proposed by Goodman and Ishak in 1981. The pathogenesis of XGC is the rupture of Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses and extravasation of bile into the muscular layer. The rupture of the serosa results in adhesion to the adjacent liver, duodenum, and transverse colon. Macroscopically, it appears like yellowish masses in the wall of the GB. Radiologically it is an important mimic of gallbladder carcinoma.
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