The Complex Femoral injuries after Hippopotamus Bite.
AJTES Vol. 5, No 2, July 2021.
Full text


animal attack, human, femoral fracture, hippopotamus bite

How to Cite

Kovalenko, F., Vassiliu, P., Degiannis, K., & Doll, D. (2021). The Complex Femoral injuries after Hippopotamus Bite. Albanian Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, 5(2), 879-882.


Introduction. Attacks by large animals, which lead to a critical patient condition, have not been systematically and statistically analyzed in the previous literature. Some papers about animal attacks are case reports and address fatal cases. Hippopotamus bite injury is a major trauma associated with complications.

Case report. In 2018, an American woman celebrating her 37th birthday in Zimbabwe embarked on a river rafting trip. After the hippopotamus bite, the patient had extensive soft tissue injuries and a comminuted fracture of the right femur. It was undertaken extensive multiple wound debridement and the femur was nailed as the site of entrance of the nail was away from the soft tissue injuries.

Conclusion. Usually, hippopotami avoid contact with people. Similar to many wild animals, hippopotami can attack in anticipation of danger, especially when protecting their offspring. In the present case, the inflicted injury is severe and has a combined character.
Full text


Forrester JA, Weiser TG, Forrester JD. An Update on Fatalities Due to Venomous and Nonvenomous Animals in the United States (2008-2015). Wilderness Environ Med. 2018 Mar;29(1):36-44.

Langley RL, Morrow WE. Deaths resulting from animal attacks in the United States. Wilderness Environ Med. 1997 Feb;8(1):8-16.

Bhuiyan MAA, Agrawal P, Wadhwaniya S, Li Q, Alonge O, Rahman AF, Rahman A. Animal-related injuries and fatalities: evidence from a large-scale population-based cross-sectional survey in rural Bangladesh. BMJ Open. 2019 Nov 2;9(11):e030039.

Durrheim DN, Leggat PA. Risk to tourists posed by wild mammals in South Africa. J Travel Med. 1999;6(3):172-179.

Elflein J. Deadliest creatures worldwide by annual number of human deaths as of 2018. Internet2019:

Katsos KD, Sakelliadis EI, Moraitis K, Spiliopoulou CA. Death by Ram Attack: A Case Report from Greece and a Brief Review of the Literature. J Forensic Sci. 2019 Sep;64(5):1559-1562.

Shetty M, Menezes RG, Kanchan T, Shetty BS, Chauhan A. Fatal craniocerebral injury from wild boar attack. Wilderness Environ Med. 2008 Fall;19(3):222-3.

Cassone M, Vollmer T, Factor M, Sallade TD. Polytrauma from a North American Black Bear Attack. Wilderness Environ Med. 2020 Dec;31(4):457-461.

Manipady S, Menezes RG, Bastia BK. Death by an attack from a wild boar. J Clin Forensic Med. 2006 Feb;13(2):89-91.

Gudmannsson P, Berge J. The Forensic Pathology of Fatal Attacks by the Large Mammals Inhabiting the Nordic Wilderness-A Literature Review. J Forensic Sci. 2019 Jul;64(4):976-981.

Haddara MM, Haberisoni JB, Trelles M, Gohou JP, Christella K, Dominguez L, Ali E. Hippopotamus bite morbidity: a report of 11 cases from Burundi. Oxf Med Case Reports. 2020 Aug 10;2020(8):omaa061.

Drake FT, Quiroga E, Kariuki HW, Shisanya KA, Hotchkiss MP, Monroe-Wise A, Drake JK, Mburu J, Farquhar C, Flum DR. Traumatic near amputation secondary to hippopotamus attack: lessons for surgeons. J Surg Res. 2014 May 1;188(1):58-63.

"Hippopotamus attack kills 13 people, including 12 children, in a boat near Niger's capital Niamey". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 20 November 2014.

Pawar SR, Kshirsagar RA, Raut PH, Patankar AP. Maxillofacial injury from a leopard attack. Natl J Maxillofac Surg. 2018 Jan-Jun;9(1):96-99.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.