Management of Perioperative Anemia in Patients that Performed Abdominal Major Surgery.
AJTES Vol 6, No 1, January 2022
Naco et al


blood plasma
iron deficiency anemia
transfusion-transmitted infections

How to Cite

Naco, M., Gani, H., Duro, V., & Naco, E. (2022). Management of Perioperative Anemia in Patients that Performed Abdominal Major Surgery. Albanian Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, 6(1), 968-975.


Introduction: Anemia is a recognized predictor of adverse postoperative outcomes in patients during abdominal major surgery. The management of perioperative anemia involves many strategies. Pre-operative anemia has adverse outcomes in major surgery and is called the fourth factor. Anemia was then classified into mild, moderate, and severe depending on hemoglobin level. It is present almost in 40% of patients that performed elective major surgery. Patients with preoperative anemia are associated with an increased rate of blood transfusion together with a risk for high morbidity and mortality.  The most usual cause of preoperative anemia is iron deficiency, which can be treated with oral/intravenous iron depending on the time scheduled for surgery. A review concluded that anemia recovery earlier with preoperative intravenous iron than with oral iron supplement. A perioperative erythropoietin injection is also a reasonable approach for patients with hemoglobin between 10 and 13 g/dL and if autologous blood donation is performed.  The protocol requires a baseline complete blood count and iron studies and all patients should receive iron supplementation during erythropoietin therapy. The next strategy is stabilized macro/ microcirculation to optimize the patient´s tolerance to bleeding. Recent recommendation, in general, suggests no bridging therapy consider it only if high thrombotic risk. Finally, targeted surgery should be used to reduce intraoperative and postoperative bleeding. We recommend a restrictive transfusion strategy. Allogeneic blood transfusion is associated with an increased incidence of nosocomial infections. Postoperative anemia must be treated with the use of intravenous iron. We ought to know fresh frozen plasma used in deficit in factor V, XI, in dose 15-30ml/kg and be aware of its complications as immunomodulation, acute lung injury, and cardiac overload.

Conclusion: Our goal is to improve patients´ clinical outcomes.
Naco et al


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