Allergic Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Review
Hoxha M. et al. - Allergic Acute Coronary Syndrome. A Case Report and Literature Review


Kounis Syndrome
allergic angina
hypersensitivity reaction

How to Cite

Hoxha, M., Ndreu, E., & Qirko Loloçi, E. (2024). Allergic Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Case Report and Literature Review. Albanian Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, 8(1), 1413-1416.


Introduction: Kounis Syndrome was first described in 1991 by Kounis and Zavras as “the concurrence of chest pain during an allergic reaction, accompanied by clinical laboratory findings of classical angina pectoris caused by inflammatory mediators released during the allergic insult” [1].

The mechanism of Kounis Syndrome most likely involves the release of cytokines through mast-cell degranulation, which leads to coronary vasospasm and atheromatous plaque erosion or rupture following the allergic reaction to an allergen.[2]

The treatment is specific to acute coronary syndrome and anaphylaxis, with the added complication that the drugs used, while indicated in each of the two disorders separately, may present contradictions when administered jointly in one patient.[3]

The purpose of this review is to briefly revise the existing literature regarding its overlooked diagnosis and contradictory joint management of anaphylaxis and acute coronary syndrome.

We will conduct a brief review of the current literature on Kounis Syndrome while describing a suspected case of a female patient presented with both anaphylaxis symptoms and angina pectoris.

Conclusions: Kounis syndrome is defined as the co-incidental occurrence of an acute coronary syndrome with hypersensitivity reactions following an allergic reaction. Treatment of allergic reactions may be sufficient in type I KS. In contrast, coronary intervention is needed in the other two types, accompanied by vasodilator drugs, including nitrates and calcium antagonists, each of which may have contradictory effects.
Hoxha M. et al. - Allergic Acute Coronary Syndrome. A Case Report and Literature Review


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