The Gallstone Ileus, a Retrospective Study and Review of the Literature
Nuhi Arslani - The Gallstone Ileus, a Retrospective Study and Review of the Literature

Keywords

Gallstone ileus
biliary-enteric fistula
enterotomy

How to Cite

Arslani, N. (2024). The Gallstone Ileus, a Retrospective Study and Review of the Literature. Albanian Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, 8(1), 1377-1380. https://doi.org/10.32391/ajtes.v8i1.355

Abstract

Introduction: Gallstone ileus (GI) is a rare complication of cholelithiasis and is one of the most irregular forms of all mechanical bowel obstructions. It is, however, a more common cause of non-strangulating mechanical small bowel obstruction, accounting for 1% to 4% of all patients and up to 25% in the elderly.

The diagnosis is often delayed since symptoms may be intermittent, and investigations may fail to identify the cause of the obstruction. As a result, gallstone ileus continues to be associated with relatively high rates of morbidity and mortality.

The cornerstone of healing is the removal of the stone that represents obstruction. As is the case with cholelithiasis, women are more frequently affected.

Material and Methods: This article aims to review the incidence of gallstone ileus in our country in the literature, addressing the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, radiological findings, and treatment options. A literature search was done on gallstone ileus for 2005-2018.

Results: The patients in the study presentation were both genders and older. They all came to INP because of abdominal pain and general nausea. All had CRP elevation present. Leukocytosis was present in only 2/3 of patients. AST was elevated in one patient and ALT in 2. All changes in laboratory parameters indicate the instability of marker changes and, consequently, the unreliability of use alone without other diagnostic methods. A CT scan was performed on all three patients, but one still needed to be uploaded to the system at the time of writing.

Conclusions: Ileus due to gallstones is a rare disease. It is an uncommon cause of mechanical small bowel obstruction. It is a rare complication of chronic cholecystitis and occurs when a gallstone passes through a fistula between the gallbladder and small bowel before becoming impacted at the ileocecal valve. The use of radiological imaging is invaluable in the diagnosis of gallstone ileus. These authors recommend a low threshold for investigation. There is evidence for using AXR as a quick first-line investigation; however, CT scanning is a powerful and gold-standard tool to diagnose the condition and guide its management.

 

https://doi.org/10.32391/ajtes.v8i1.355
Nuhi Arslani - The Gallstone Ileus, a Retrospective Study and Review of the Literature

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